Questions day 10:

  • What is a multimeter?

“A multimeter measures electrical properties such as AC or DC voltage, current, and resistance. Rather than have separate meters, this device combines a voltemeter, an ammeter, and an hommeter. Electricians and the general public might use it on batteries, components, switches, power sources, and motors to diagnose electrical malfunctions and narrow down their cause.”(


  • What is the difference among BINARY, HEXADECIMAL, and DECIMAL?

“Binary: Binary numbers are just “Base 2” instead of “Base 10”. So you start counting at 0, then 1, then you run out of digits … so you start back at 0 again, but increase the number on the left by 1.

Decimal: To understand Binary and Hexadecimal numbers, it is best to know how Decimal numbers work. Every digit in a decimal number has a “position”, and the decimal point helps us to know which position is which.

Hexadecimal: There are 16 of them. They look the same as the decimal numbers up to 9, but then there are the letters (“A’,”B”,”C”,”D”,”E”,”F”) in place of the decimal numbers 10 to 15. So a single Hexadecimal digit can show 16 different values instead of the normal 10 like this:”

Decimal: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
Hexadecimal: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F


  • What is the difference between inductive and deductive logic?

“Inductive and inductive reasoning are both approaches that can be used to evaluate inferences. Deductive reasoning involves starting out with a theory or general statement, then moving towards a specific conclusion.Indeductive reasoning on the other hand, takes a series of specific observations and tries to expand them into a more general theory. Each approach is very different, and it is important to be aware that both inductive and deductive reasoning can end up with false results, especially if the initial premise of the reasoning is false, in which case the results are said to be “unsound.””


  • What did you think about Honors Academy, Exploratory Math?

I think that was very interesting and fun. I met a lot of different people from other schools and teachers from other countries. I really liked this experice, is my very first time that I’ve been in a summer course. I hope I go to Stanford next year 🙂

Day 9:

We  worked on our blogs and started our research with our partners. I needed to investigate about prisoner’s dilemma.

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Later we worked on arduino, my group made our arduino sing star wars song with some LEDs that lighted in rythm with the music.

In the the last block we did the posters for our research projcet and finally we worked on our city.

Day 8:

In the morning we worked in the computer lab with new groups. We used the arduinos and did many circuits. Some of them make the LED light in different ways. After break we worked in arduinos again.


In the afternoon we reviewed adjacent Matrix and learned Karnaugh’s Map with truth tables.

Then we planned our city “Nyan Ville” with our group 🙂

Questions Day 8!

  • Use this website to make
    • ~(p ^ q) v (~p v ~q)=


  • You used 2 chips yesterday, find them and link them to your post. What is the name of the 2 chips that seem most like the ones you used yesterday:

SN54/74LS08 (And Chip)




  • What is a truth table?

A truth table is a convenient and helpful way to organiza true values of different satements. A truth table is a table whose columns are statements, and whose rows are possible scenarios. The table contains every possible scenario and the truth values that would occur. Every statement is either True or False.

  • What is Demorgan’s Law?

¬ is the negation operator (NOT)

\land is the conjunction operator (AND)

\lor is the disjunction operator (OR)

⇔ means logically equivalent (If and only if)

  • What is Ohm’s Law?

Ohm’s Law is the mathematical relationship among electric current (I), Resistance(R), voltages(V).For many conductors of electricity, the electric current flows through them is directly proportional to the voltage applied to them. 


Ohm’s law

  • What is double implication?(⇔)

$P \iff Q$ means that P and Q are equivalent. So the double implication is true if P and Q are both true or if P and Q are both false; otherwise, the double implication is false” (

  • What is an adjacency matrix?

“An adjacency matrix is a matrix which describes a graph by representing which vertices are adjacent to which other vertices.” (

Day 7:

Yesterday we learned truth tables. They were kind of hard but later I understood. We also learned Bollean Algebra. 🙂


Then after break we worked on our arduinos with our groups, and learned more about them.


Day 6:

In the morning we workrd on our blogs and did some questions. We commented our classmates sites. We also continued our processing project.

After break we learned about arduino and started using electricity to light a very little LED in groups.

Then we finally make our little LED light up. When we finished we did some hexagons.



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Graph Coloring…

In graph theory, graph coloring is a special case of graph labeling; it is an assignment of labels traditionally called “colors” to elements of a graph subject to certain constraints. In its simplest form, it is a way of coloring the vertices of a graph such that no two adjacent vertices share the same color; this is called a vertex coloring. Similarly, an edge coloring assigns a color to each edge so that no two adjacent edges share the same color, and a face coloring of a planar graph assigns a color to each face or region so that no two faces that share a boundary have the same color.

South America color graph

South America color graph


  • What is an assembler?

“An assembler is a type of computer program that interprets software programs written in assembly language into machine language, code and instructions that can be executed by a computer.It enables software and application developers to access, operate and manage a computer’s hardware architecture and components.It’s is sometimes referred to as the compiler of assembly language. It also provides the services of an interpreter.” (

  • What is an Arduino?

“Arduino is a tool for making computers that can sense and control more of the physical world than your desktop computer. It’s an open-source physical computing platform based on a simple microcontroller board, and a development environment for writing software for the board. Arduino can be used to develop interactive objects, taking inputs from a variety of switches or sensors, and controlling a variety of lights, motors, and other physical outputs.”(

  • What is the Traveling Sales Person Problem? (we did not cover this in class)

“This is a well-known intractable problem, meaning that there are no efficient solutions that work for a large number of cities. But we can create an inefficient algorithm that works fine for a small number of cites (about a dozen). We can also find a nearly-shortest tour over thousands of cities. Actually, the fact there is no efficient algorithm is liberating: it means that we can use a very simple, inefficient algorithm and not feel too bad about it. In this exercise we will look at some algorithms for solving the problem. The most important lesson is how to think about solving a problem like this; the details of this particular problem are less important.” (

  • What is Pre-Fix notation?

They are a mathematical notation. It is a way to write down equations and other mathematical formulae. It’ was created to simplify writing logic equations. With prefix notation, the function is noted before the arguments it operates on.

  • What are the leaves of a binary tree?
  • What is a complete graph?

A complete graph is a Graph in which each pair of vertices is connected by an edge. 

  • What is a Finite State Machine (FSM)?

“A model of a computational system, consisting of a set of states (including a start state), an alphabet of symbols that serves as a set of possible inputs to the machine, and a transition function that maps each state to another state (or to itself) for any given input symbol. The machine operates by being fed a string of symbols, and moves through a series of states. “(

Day 5:

Today we started a new project in programming. I did a mouse that follows you and when it’s pressed it changes.

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Then we learned how to make an hexaflexagon(it took alot of time because the aren’t easy to do!)


Finally we did some figures using modeling clay and spaguetti. We create pentagons , squares, and 3-d shapes. And we also created animals using tangrams.